In this issue:
The Andean region’s smallest known frog was recently discovered in the cloud forest near Peru’s Manu National Park. Over the past two years, 10 new frog species have been found in the forest around ACA’s Wayqecha Cloud Forest Research Station, which sits 9,824 feet above sea level in the department of Cusco.
Smaller than a dime, the Noble's pygmy frog (Noblella pygmae) surprised herpetologists studying at Wayqecha because it contradicts the informal rule that high altitude vertebrates tend to be larger than low altitude vertebrates. Noble’s pygmy frog is among the smallest vertebrates ever found at this altitude, and one of the smallest amphibian species in the world.
In addition to its exceptionally small size, the species is unique because females lay only two eggs at a time, and instead of passing through an aquatic tadpole stage, baby frogs are land dwelling as soon as they hatch, which is possible thanks to the moist cloud forest habitat. Edgar Lehr from the Senckenberg Natural History Collection in Dresden, Germany and Swiss-Peruvian ecologist Alessandro Catenazzi from the University of California at Berkeley describe this new species in the latest issue of the journal Copeia.
Learn how you can support further research at the Wayqecha Cloud Forest Research Station.
The Manu-Tambopata Corridor Initiative (MAT) was launched in February 2009 to conserve one of the most important biodiversity hotspots in the world, a 519,000 acre (210,000 hectare) area of rainforest in the Peruvian Amazon. This initiative is the centerpiece of ACA’s efforts to lessen the environmental impacts of the Interoceanic Highway, a transcontinental road that models predict could produce a swath of deforestation the size of Massachusetts and Connecticut combined.
The Interoceanic Highway is expected to be completed by 2011 and runs across the South American continent from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean ports of Peru. This expanse of paved highway threatens to create a band of deforestation of up to 62 miles (100km) across. Rampant deforestation in this region would likely change the weather patterns in the Amazon and emit millions of tons of carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change.
Establishing the Manu-Tambopata Corridor will protect the area between the Los Amigos Conservation Concession and the Tambopata reserve. At the same time, it will conserve the last unprotected stretch at the heart of the Vilcabamba-Amboró Mega Corridor, which connects 16 protected areas from Peru to Bolivia in a chain of pristine tropical rainforest and pampa ecosystems. The region is home to an incredible abundance of plants and animals, including giant river otters, jaguars, scarlet macaws, spider monkeys, and wild vanilla trees among others. The MAT will connect world-famous Manu National Park to the Tambopata National Reserve by way of ACA’s Los Amigos Conservation Concession.
The objective of the MAT Corridor Initiative is to protect forest cover and ecological connectivity while creating sustainable economic and social benefits for local communities. ACA will work with rural families and regional policy makers to introduce a mosaic of conservation areas and sustainable land management practices that can make a profit, such as agroforestry, ecotourism, extraction of non-timber forest products, and carbon finance. The MAT initiative will promote these conservation-based industries as a substitute for predatory land uses that threaten to destroy the rainforest, such as logging, large-scale agriculture, cattle ranching and slash-and-burn farming. Stay tuned for updates as these exciting projects develop!
We are happy to welcome Dr. Adrian Tejedor as our new Science Manager based at CICRA, our research station in Madre de Dios, Peru. CICRA is the busiest research station in the Amazon basin, where we’ve hosted over 450 researchers and assistants to date. Adrian has a PhD in Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior from the City University of New York and extensive experience studying neotropical evolution and biogeography. Adrian has led a range of research in tropical ecology and written several scientific publications on bat biology and evolution. Adrian coordinates research, courses and the scholarship program at CICRA and oversees the science program for ACA. You can welcome him by email at
Congratulations! Your wedding day will be unforgettable, making it the perfect opportunity to share your passion for the environment with your family and friends. In lieu of traditional wedding favors, honor your guests and “green” your wedding by making a tax-deductible contribution to the Amazon Conservation Association on their behalf. As a token of our appreciation, ACA will send you gift donation cards letterpress printed on sustainable bamboo paper, which explains how your donation has helped protect the Amazon and create a better livelihood for local communities. Please pass this opportunity along to your engaged family members and friends! For further details, please contact Megan at
Oxford University professor Yadvinder Malhi has been working at ACA’s Wayqecha Cloud Forest Research Station as the director of the project, “Effects of Climate Change on a Tropical Ecosystem.” As a leader in his field, Malhi is researching the implications of climate change for the cloud forest outside of Cusco, Peru. What follows is our recent interview with Malhi:
ACA: What changes might we see on a global scale, due to global warming?
YM: There will likely be many effects. One of these is changes in the distribution of plant and animal species, which may or may not be able to adapt to the changes in climate. In addition, rainfall patterns may be altered; places that have never had droughts might see months without rain--affecting plant, animal and human populations living in those regions.
ACA: In what way can the Amazon help to limit the effects of global warming?
YM: The Amazon is critical because it limits the effects of climate change. Its forests absorb carbon dioxide and convert it into biomass. Without this, global warming would be greater and more intense. The influence of the Amazon on rain cycles is significant since it ensures that rainwater is retained and returned to the clouds to generate new rainfall. Without the Amazon, water would go directly to the rivers and from there to the ocean and we’d then all have less water available.
ACA: What does your research in the cloud forests of Cusco, Peru involve?
YM: We work closely with the San Antonio Abad University of Cusco (UNSAAC), Oxford University in England, Wake Forest University in the United States and the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. Over the course of four to six years, we are researching the carbon and water cycles in the Amazonian cloud forest, as well as the distribution of plant and animal species and how climate change can affect this distribution. This project is part of a larger one that is studying other types of Amazonian forests at sites in Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, and northern Peru. We are also using a system of satellite imagery to see the Amazon from space and observe variations in climate across different Amazonian areas.
ACA: What is the importance of ACA's Wayqecha Cloud Forest Research Center?
YM: Of the two cloud forest research sites, Wayqecha is the best. There are other sites—in Ecuador and other areas of the tropical world, but neither Africa nor Asia has sites like this. That's why the research we are conducting is not only important to Cusco and Peru, but to all of Latin America and the globe.
ACA: Why is Peru a natural laboratory?
YM: Peru is one of the most vulnerable areas to climate change because of the Andes Mountains, the Amazon and cities like Lima, located in the desert, which need water from the mountains. Without that water source, they would disappear. The Andes are “hot spots” or focal points of global warming. That's why Peru is a good place to learn about adaptation to climate change; it serves as a natural laboratory because of its sensitivity to global warming.
ACA: When will you finish this project?
YM: It will be another four years; I expect to finish by 2012 with the help of local Peruvian scholars. That's why we’re training students from Cusco and other regions of Peru, those that are working towards Master's and Doctoral degrees. We think it is important to train them as this work should be led by Peruvians themselves.
ACA: What is the role of UNSAAC and the Amazon Conservation Association?
YM: There is a strong collaboration between us; with UNSAAC (Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco) through students and professors and ACA, which offers a good deal of support through scholarships for Peruvian and foreign students as well as the entire infrastructure of the Wayqecha Research Center in the cloud forest of Cusco and the Los Amigos Research Station (CICRA) in the Amazon rainforest in Madre de Dios – two research centers in strategic areas that are dedicated to comprehensive research and conservation of the Amazon basin in southeastern Peru.
ACA: What can our readers do to help?
YM: We can protect the Amazon, but global action will be important. North America, Europe, China and India and even Latin American countries like Peru have to facilitate studies and research. Thankfully, politicians are already beginning to understand that the greatest danger to the world this century is climate change. I have a lot of hope that decisions and actions will be taken in the next few years. Some countries already encourage limiting carbon dioxide emissions—to be successful, we all need to work together.
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